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Pipe fittings

Pipe fittings

Pipe fittings

In the piping system, a fitting or adaptor is used to connect straight lengths of pipe or tube together, adapt to different sizes or shapes, and to branch or re-direct the piping system. Fittings are most often made from stainless steel, steel, copper or plastic.

A pipe fitting may be defined as any type of connector that is used to:

  1. Change direction of the pipes
  2. Change the diameter of the pipes
  3. Make a branch
  1. Change the direction of the pipes

The first category of the fittings is related to the fittings that are responsible for changing the direction of the pipes. Elbow, Return, Bend, Mitered Bend are the examples of this kind of fitting.

  1. Elbow

Elbows are used mostly than other pipe fittings. It is installed between two lengths of pipe allowing a change of direction, usually 90 degree or 45 degree. If the specialists need to change the direction of the pipe by 45 degrees, they can use a 45 degree elbow between the pipes.

If they want to change the direction of the pipe by 90 degrees, a 90 degree elbow is inserted between the pipes.

There are 2 different types of elbows:

  • Short radius (1D)
  • Long radius (1.5D)

Long radius (1.5D)

The centerline radius of a long radius elbow is 1.5 times of the nominal size of the pipe or 1.5 times the diameter of the pipe.

Short radius (1D)

The centerline radius of a short radius elbow is the same as the pipes’ nominal size or one times the pipes’ diameter.

  1. Return- 180degree Elbow

To make a 180 change in direction of the pipes, return elbows are used. The pattern is available in two lengths: short and long. The heating coil, heat exchanger, tank vent, and other components all use returns.

  1. Bend

Bend is a fitting that is used to change the direction in a piping system. It is used for different applications such as petrochemical, oil gas, power generation, and many industries. It is used to prevent the obstruction in the pipeline, fluid friction, and increase the fluids flow rate.

There are 4 types of Bend, including:

  • Long Radius Bend: It has a larger radius than other bends. It gradually changes the direction in the pipes in order to decrease fluid resistance.
  • Short Radius Bend: It has a smaller radius of curvature than a long radius bend.
  • 3D and 5D Bend: A 3-D bend is related to the changing of the direction of the pipes in 3 dimensions. A 5-D bend is related to the changing of the direction of the pipes in 5 dimensions with a larger bending radius.
  • Mitered bend: it is used for cutting and welding two or more pipes to make an angle.
  1. Miter Bend

Miter bend is made by cutting pipe ends at an angle and connecting the pipe ends. They are not the standard pipe fittings. Due to large size elbows are expensive, they are usually offered for sizes 10 and up. Miter bend is only applied on low-pressure water lines.

  1. Change the diameter

The second category in piping fittings is related to the fittings that are responsible for changing the diameter of the pipes.

There are two main fittings of this kind: Reducer, Swage, and Coupling

  1. Reducer

Reducer is a pipe fitting that reduces the pipe’s diameter, and connects the pipes of different sizes together. It is typically made from materials such as carbon steel, stainless steel, and cast iron.

Based on the relative position of the centerlines of the outlet and inlet, there are two main types of reducer:

  • Concentric reducer
  • Eccentric reducer

Concentric reducer

Concentric reducers have a symmetrical shape and are used to join pipes of different sizes with the same centerline.

Eccentric reducer

Eccentric reducers have an asymmetrical shape and are used to join pipes of different sizes that are not on the same centerline.

  1. Swage

A swage is similar to the reducer, but it is smaller and connects a larger size of the pipe to a smaller one. They are typically used in high-pressure piping system.

There are two main types of swage:

  • Concentric swage
  • Eccentric swage

Concentric swage

A concentric swage is a pipe fitting used to reduce the size of a larger pipe to a smaller of the same diameter. This type of swage is typically used when the fluid flow should be maintained or increased.

Eccentric Swage

An eccentric swage is a pipe fitting used to connect two pipes of different sizes with one end larger than the diameter. This type of swage is typically used when the fluid flow rate should be decreased or the direction should be changed.

  1. Coupling

Coupling is a pipe fitting that is used to connect a pipe to a pipe or a swage. The pipes should be in the same diameter.

There are three various types of coupling:

  • Full coupling: it is used for connecting small bore pipes.
  • Half coupling: it is used to branch a small pipe to a large one.
  • Reducing coupling: it is used to connect two pipes with different diameters.
  1. Make a branch

The third category is related to make a branch in the piping system. In the piping system, header is referred to the main pipe and branch is referred to the pipes that are responsible for transferring the fluids from the header. There are three methods to make a branch. Such as: Tee, Out-let, and pipe to pipe connections.

  1. Tee

When a fluid flow need to branch to go to the various parts of the piping system, a Tee fitting is used. It is a fitting with a side outlet at 90 degree to the run of the pipe. Tees connect pipes of various diameters and help in changing the direction of water or material in a pipe.

 

There are four types of a Tee pipe: Equal Tee, Reducing Tee, swept Tee, and Wye Tee

 Equal Tee

The diameter of the branch in a straight tee is the same as the diameter of the Run (Header) Pipe. It is most commonly used.

Reducing Tee

The diameter of the branch in a reducing tee is different from the diameter of the Run (Header) Pipe.

Swept Tee

It is used when the branch enters the body at an arc and is used to minimize the frictional losses and promote flow in the system.

Wye Tee

It is used when the diameter of the branch is smaller than the diameter of the Run pipe.

  1. Out-let

Out-let is a branch fitting that is used to connect a smaller pipe branches to the larger pipes. It creates a perpendicular connection between the run of a pipe and the branch pipe and makes a Tee connection, when the Tee fitting is not available.

  1. Pipe to pipe connection

In this method, the two pipes connect to each other directly without using any fitting.

Conclusion

With the above explanations, we have completely realized that the pipes in different dimensions and materials depend on the kind of executive projects. But the significant point is that Marzogh Company has more than one design project and the implementation of mini-petrochemical and petrochemical in Iraq and Iran and an ongoing project in Afghanistan. Marzogh Company does not apply any ordinary material. If you use the ordinary material, you will definitely observe the lack of quality of equipment in the production process. Marzogh Company possesses a specialized board in connection and piping. It is the provider of the main parts of the popular and valid brands in the world at a reasonable price. It gives the opportunity for its customers to choose high-quality products in petrochemical parts and equipment in the production for many years. Stay tuned.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1 Response

  • Wow, marvelous weblog structure! How long have
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  • Wow, marvelous weblog structure! How long have you ever been running a blog for? you make blogging look easy. The whole look of your web site is magnificent, as neatly as the content! You can see similar here sklep